Bowdoin Professor 塔季扬娜Avilova and Her Work with Nobel Prize-winning Economist Claudia Goldin

丽贝卡·戈德芬
塔季扬娜Avilova, 经济学助理教授, 是克劳迪娅·戈尔丁的研究合作者吗, 谁在10月份被授予 诺贝尔经济学奖 表彰她对劳动力市场中女性的研究.
经济学助理教授塔季扬娜Avilova
经济学助理教授塔季扬娜Avilova

Avilova's twelve-year scholarly partnership with Goldin began when she was an undergraduate student at Harvard University and worked for her as a research assistant.

戈尔丁是阿维洛娃的主要原因, 是主修东亚研究还是主修经济学, 决定把她的事业奉献给经济学. Assisting Goldin's research in family economics "was the first time I saw a real-world application of the field, 这不仅仅是模型、GDP、失业和通胀的问题, 我们可以回答性别收入差距的问题,她说.

戈尔丁是第一位获得诺贝尔经济学奖的女性, is best known for her work studying the causes behind the gender gap in workforce wages and participation. 她对推动女性参与工作的因素的见解, 包括获得避孕和儿童保健, 灵活的工作安排, have led to a "re-evaluation of working women [that] has boosted incomes and expanded the labor force—developments that have only added to countries' economic output," writes University of Michigan economics and public policy professor Betsey Stevenson in 彭博.

“克劳迪娅在研究方面很有能力,阿维洛娃说 in an interview soon after learning that her mentor had received the prize. "She's done a lot of important and trailblazing work and she also is a great teacher and an amazing mentor, 不仅对我,对许多代学生也是如此."

Avilova, 应用微观经济学家, 侧重于卫生经济学和经济教育, with a main interest in how government and institutional policies affect outcomes for individuals. 在她目前的研究中, 她正在研究美国的阿片类药物流行, 日本的处方药使用情况, 以及榜样干预对学生非认知技能的影响, 考试成绩, 以及对中国STEM领域的兴趣, 在其他主题中. 在来欧洲杯竞猜网址之前, she was a research associate at the Institute of Social Science at the University of Tokyo.

After spending a post-undergraduate year doing research at the University of Tsukuba in Japan on a Fulbright fellowship, Avilova returned to the US to work again for Goldin on a special project called the 本科女生经济学挑战赛. 该项目由阿尔弗雷德P. Sloan Foundation and administered through the National Bureau of Economic Research, experimented with methods to increase the numbers of women in the economics major.

"One of the areas Claudia wanted to shine a light on was the gender disparity in economics among undergraduate majors,阿维洛娃说. 当时, 学经济学的女生和学经济学的男生的比例只有1比3, 从那时起,这一比例已经提高到2.5个男人对1个女人. 

Past surveys have shown that increasing the numbers of female economists could have a significant impact on the types of policies and issues they study, 阿维洛娃指出. 该领域的多样性代表导致了思想的多样性. “鼓励更多的女性是其中很重要的一部分,”她说.

解决性别差距问题, Goldin devised a study to see whether targeted initiatives could recruit and retain female economics majors at the undergraduate level. 阿维洛娃帮助建立了该项目,并在2014年和2015年实施了该项目.

In 2016, 阿维洛娃开始在哥伦比亚大学攻读经济学博士学位, 但她最近又回到了这个项目,和戈尔丁一起分析结果, 他们发表了一份报告 在2023年7月的一份工作文件中. They found the interventions had more of an impact at liberal arts colleges, potentially due to the smaller size of the institution (which may make it easier to reach potential majors) and the larger size of the programs relative to other majors. “大型大学没有显示出治疗的影响, although those that implemented their own randomized control trials showed moderate success in encouraging more women to major in economics,她说.

女大学生经济学挑战赛, 设置为随机对照试验, enrolled eighty-eight higher education institutions: sixty-eight schools served as controls and twenty were in the treatment group. 全国各地的机构都在治疗组中有代表, 包括文理学院, 常春藤盟校, 公立大学.

每个参与机构都获得了资金, 指导, and networking with peer institutions to implement at least one intervention targeted to female students. The dozens of interventions implemented by the economics departments at the treatment schools can be broadly grouped into three (sometimes overlapping) categories: those focused on providing more information about the field of economics, 那些培养更多指导和榜样的人, and those adjusting the economics curriculum to offer a wider breadth of classes.

"The thinking behind the interventions is that we hoped they would disproportionately affect women and move the needle on that representation, 但我们意识到,他们中的许多人可能会在更广泛的范围内提高专业水平, 例如, 让这个专业更能吸引有色人种的学生, 也,”阿维洛娃说.

The most widely implemented type of intervention focused on building mentorship and an academic community to support female students, such as by starting student clubs and creating more opportunities for students to meet professors, 校友, 以及其他鼓舞人心的经济学家.

The area of intervention that was focused on curriculum and pedagogy led to some participating institutions creating new courses—both introductory and upper-level ones, 比如新的顶点课程, 女性主义经济学课程, and classes looking at "real-world issues that economists are trying to solve through their research,阿维洛娃说.

最后, even if the interventions didn't result in parity across the board at higher education institutions—for now at least—they helped raise awareness of the issue.

在他们的工作文件的结论中, 戈尔丁和阿维洛娃写道, "The interventions that our treatment schools used were relatively low-cost and light-touch. But they required the time and initiative of undergraduate instructional staff and faculty."

"If our efforts have led to a recognition that curriculum and advising should be altered to attract the majority BA group—women—we will have succeeded admirably."